Eustachian tube swelling prednisone

   

Middle Ear, Eustachian Tube, Inflammation/Infection Treatment & Management.
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In the United States, acute otitis media (AOM) is typically treated with antibiotics. [3] Treatment with amoxicillin for 10 days is the initial antibiotic therapy, or Bactrim is substituted if the patient is allergic to penicillin. In Europe, a more conservative approach to treating acute otitis media (AOM) is used. Given the alarming increase in antibiotic resistance, the routine usage of antibiotics in the United States should be reconsidered.
A meta-analyses from 30 articles written in English and 3 articles written in a language other than English revealed that acute otitis media (AOM) achieved complete clinical resolution without treatment 81% of the time as compared with resolution 95% of the time with the use of antimicrobials. Criteria for withholding or delaying antibiotic therapy for acute otitis media (AOM) include (1) patient older than 2 years, (2) normal host, (3) intact tympanic membrane, (4) at least 3-6 months since last episode of otitis media (OM), (5) receptive parents, and (6) assurance of medical follow-up care.
A study by Tawfik et al indicated that since the introduction of pneumococcal vaccination, hospital admissions for pediatric acute otitis media (AOM)/complications of acute otitis media (AOM) in the United States have decreased in prevalence, as have admission rates for pneumococcal meningitis with acute otitis media (AOM)/complications of acute otitis media (AOM). Using information from the Kids’ Inpatient Database from between 2000 and 2012, the study found particularly sharp declines in admissions for children under age 1 years, from 22.647 to 8.715 per 100,000 persons, and for children aged 1-2 years, from 13.652 to 5.554 per 100,000 persons. [16]
In the United States, otitis media with effusion (OME) can be treated with observation, antibiotics, or tympanostomy tube placement. However, a meta-analysis of controlled studies revealed only a 14% increase in the resolution rate when antibiotics are given. [4, 5] Antibiotic suppression is not indicated for otitis media with effusion (OME), and multiple courses of antibiotics have no proven benefit. Consider surgical intervention after 3-4 months of effusion with a 20 dB or greater hearing loss. [6]
Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) can be treated primarily with a combination of time, autoinsufflation (eg, an Otovent), and oral and nasal steroids (budesonide, mometasone, prednisone, methylprednisolone). The results of one study suggest that intranasal steroid sprays alone do not help eustachian tube dysfunction. [17]
Decongestants (eg, pseudoephedrine, oxymetazoline, phenylephrine) are also helpful, but not as useful for chronic eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD). Consider the cardiovascular effects of oral decongestants and the early development of tachyphylaxis observed with the use of nasal decongestants; limit the use of the decongestant to short-term symptomatic relief (ie, no more than 3-5 d).
Nasal and oral antihistamines can also be beneficial in patients with allergic rhinitis. Leukotriene antagonists (eg, montelukast sodium [Singulair]) are helpful in some patients when oral steroids are not an option. Adequate control of laryngeal pharyngeal reflux helps to resolve eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) in patients with an associated peritubal inflammation from reflux. Proton pump inhibitors (esomeprazole magnesium [Nexium], rabeprazole [Aciphex], omeprazole [Prilosec]) administered twice a day are often used. Myringotomy with tube insertion is reserved for the refractory patient with debilitating symptoms.
An international consensus statement on the management of pediatric OME, stemming from the 2017 International Federation of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies World Congress, maintains that the underlying problems of age-dependent eustachian tube dysfunction are poorly addressed by nonsurgical treatment. The only exception, according to the statement, appears to be autoinflation, which the statement identified as an effective, low-risk, low-cost therapy. In addition, the statement recommended against steroid, antibiotic, decongestant, or antihistamine use in OME management, citing side effects, cost issues, and a lack of convincing evidence regarding long-term effectiveness. [18]
Surgical Care.
The primary surgical treatment of all types of otitis media (OM) is myringotomy with tube placement. [7] The typical ventilation tube stays in place for a period of 8-12 months, with closure of the perforation occurring after tube extrusion. In a small percentage of patients with poor eustachian tube function or other complicating factors, the perforation may persist.
Adenoidectomy is indicated for refractory OME in children older than 4 years and in younger children when adenoid pathology is present (eg, chronic adenoiditis, adenoid hypertrophy).
Tonsillectomy has not been shown to prevent otitis media (OM) either alone or in conjunction with adenoidectomy.
Mastoidectomy, both canal wall up and canal wall down, can be used to treat complications of middle ear infection and eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD).
Consultations.
Consult with an otolaryngologist if the patient has any evidence of complications of otitis media (OM), if the effusion persists for longer than 3 months, if a 20 dB or greater hearing loss exists, or if a patient has more than 3 episodes of otitis media (OM) in 4 months or 6 episodes of otitis media (OM) in 1 year.
Neurosurgery consultation may be required for intracranial complications such as a brain abscess.
Patients with eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) must be careful when flying or diving because of the risk of barotrauma. Instruct patients with significant eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) to use oral and topical decongestants 30 minutes before landing. An Otovent may be used to assist with autoinsufflation in the treatment of eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD).
References.
Swarts JD, Alper CM, Luntz M, Bluestone CD, Doyle WJ, Ghadiali SN, et al. Panel 2: Eustachian tube, middle ear, and mastoid–anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and pathogenesis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2013 Apr. 148(4 Suppl):E26-36. [Medline].
Danishyar A, Ashurst JV. Otitis, Media, Acute. 2018 Jan. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Sakulchit T, Goldman RD. Antibiotic therapy for children with acute otitis media. Can Fam Physician . 2017 Sep. 63 (9):685-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].
van Zon A, van der Heijden GJ, van Dongen TM, Burton MJ, Schilder AG. Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2012 Sep 12. CD009163. [Medline].
Venekamp RP, Burton MJ, van Dongen TM, van der Heijden GJ, van Zon A, Schilder AG. Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2016 Jun 12. CD009163. [Medline].
Sudhoff H, Schröder S, Reineke U, Lehmann M, Korbmacher D, Ebmeyer J. [Therapy of chronic obstructive eustachian tube dysfunction : Evolution of applied therapies]. HNO . 2013 Jun. 61(6):477-82. [Medline].
Haddad J Jr, Saiman L, San Gabriel P, et al. Nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent otitis media undergoing ventilating tube placement. Pediatr Infect Dis J . 2000 May. 19(5):432-7. [Medline].
Hasegawa K, Tsugawa Y, Cohen A, et al. Infectious Disease-related Emergency Department Visits Among Children in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J . 2015 Apr 8. [Medline].
Handzic J, Radic B, Bagatin T, Savic A, Stambolija V, Nevajda B. Hearing in children with otitis media with effusion–clinical retrospective study. Coll Antropol . 2012 Dec. 36(4):1273-7. [Medline].
Doyle WJ, Alper CM, Buchman CA, Moody SA, Skoner DP, Cohen S. Illness and otological changes during upper respiratory virus infection. Laryngoscope . 1999 Feb. 109(2 Pt 1):324-8. [Medline].
Martin JM, Hoberman A, Shaikh N, et al. Changes Over Time in Nasopharyngeal Colonization in Children Under 2 Years of Age at the Time of Diagnosis of Acute Otitis Media (1999-2014). Open Forum Infect Dis . 2018 Mar. 5 (3):ofy036. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Paltura C, Can TS, Yilmaz BK, Dinc ME, Develioglu ON, Kulekci M. Eustachian tube diameter: Is it associated with chronic otitis media development?. Am J Otolaryngol . 2017 Mar 31. [Medline].
Niemelä M, Pihakari O, Pokka T, Uhari M. Pacifier as a risk factor for acute otitis media: A randomized, controlled trial of parental counseling. Pediatrics . 2000 Sep. 106(3):483-8. [Medline].
Contencin P, Maurage C, Ployet MJ, Seid AB, Sinaasappel M. Gastroesophageal reflux and ENT disorders in childhood. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol . 1995 Jun. 32 Suppl:S135-44. [Medline].
Tarabichi M, Najmi M. Visualization of the eustachian tube lumen with Valsalva computed tomography. Laryngoscope . 2015 Mar. 125(3):724-9. [Medline].
Tawfik KO, Ishman SL, Altaye M, Meinzen-Derr J, Choo DI. Pediatric Acute Otitis Media in the Era of Pneumococcal Vaccination. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2017 May. 156 (5):938-45. [Medline].
Gluth MB, McDonald DR, Weaver AL, Bauch CD, Beatty CW, Orvidas LJ. Management of eustachian tube dysfunction with nasal steroid spray: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2011 May. 137(5):449-55. [Medline].
[Guideline] Simon F, Haggard M, Rosenfeld RM, et al. International consensus (ICON) on management of otitis media with effusion in children. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis . 2018 Feb. 135 (1S):S33-9. [Medline].
Black S, Shinefield H, Fireman B, et al. Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J . 2000 Mar. 19(3):187-95. [Medline].
Contributor Information and Disclosures.
Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference.
Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA Professor of Otolaryngology, Dentistry, and Engineering, University of Colorado School of Medicine.
Ari J Goldsmith, MD Chief of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Long Island College Hospital; Associate Professor, Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center.

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